Embodied Instruction Research at University of California, Santa Barbara

ABOUT THIS EPISODE

Dr. Andrew Stull, Associate Project Scientist at University of California, Santa Barbara, joined the podcast to talk about their team’s embodied instruction research, if there could be such a thing as too charismatic of an instructor, and how this research should influence our pedagogy.

You can use new media, but don't foregoeffective methods for constracting a lesson for connecting with rer students, you're listening to enrolment growth,university from helic education, the best professional development podcastfor higher education leaders looking to grow in Roman at their college oruniversity, whether you're looking for fresh and Roman growth techniques andstrategies or tools and resources. You've come to the right place. Let'sget into the show, welcome back to anroman growthuniversity, a proud member of the connect Evu podcast network, I'm ErickWolson with helics education and we're here today with Dr Andrew Stoll,Associate Project scientist at University of California Santa Barbaraand be welcome to the show, and it's good to be here- really excited to haveyou and talk with you today about your teams embodied instruction research andhow it might inform our pedagogy before we dig in. Can you give the listeners alittle bit of background on both UCSB and your role there? Well, you seeSanta Barbara is a top Tier Research University, but our program has astrong and dedicated emphasis to education, educational design,technology design to promote meaniful learning. So that's what our team isconcentrated on. It's what's the best way to support student learning andinstructional development to support meaningful. I O mostly be work in thestem, which is science technology enginer and that demains, but it'srelevant to any topic, that's being taugnt. It's a great mission, you'reasking great questions and I'm excited to see if you and your team have anstarts to answers for us to consider as worth thinking about online instructiona lot of us far for the very first time in a serious manner this year, Andy Dek,to kick us off today. Can you give us just a high level overview on theconcept of embodied instruction, simply put its the idea that the instructor ispart of the instructional message? The instructors social ques personalitypresence is part of the lesson. It's not just the words and the picturesthat might be display on the screen or written on the board, but it's what theinstructor does the high contact that they might gain from the students inorder to support a social connection to develop social rapport or how theymight reference point to gesture. In order to guide students to move through the lesson material is thesimple thing is like: How is the instructor a guide to attending to therelevant material at the right time?...

Sometimes talk about it as a dance is how theinstructors able to guide the students attention at the right time to theright place in order to make the point that's intended to be made of the righttime. That's pretty much an a Prettya, pretty global high level view ofbutedbodie instructions. It's a superhelpa one, and it begs a lot ofquestions in terms of you know how much physiality is required for aninstructor to guide their students are learning so based on your research. Howimportant would you say it is for a student to be able to see theirprofessor during online instruction? You know I hesitate to say thatinstructor must be seen, but uninstructor must be personally present. There must be someattempt by the instructor to create a social relationship to make aware thatthe student is present in that conversation. So you seen con Academy of Videos that, inthe speakers in the instructors and those videos are, I would say, verysocially present, although you never see much more than a cursor movingthrough the screen yeah. So I mean the research that I've done really is aboutwhen this instructor is physically present, visibly present, but it I meanbeing social. Making a connecting with the the student does, it necessary, say,doesn't necessarily require. I mean, there's still some ongoing research tolook at this that's needed, but my gut is telling me that an instructor that, in reaching to a student andattempting to create praport, is performing much of that task in createor offering effortin for the student to connect to support purport and tomotivate the student to engage with the lesson as being presented with thewords with the concepts with the process or the sequence or theanimation or the peace of art. The old concept is the instructor as a guide.Yes, the specific aspect of my research is about how the instructors gaze to look at someone, and you could be ina conversation and good conversations when to speakers look back and forth.They look into another person's eyes in order to establish that point to toconnect to initiate that that connection, but then sometimes you'llbe in a conversation, and sometimes this person, you're speaking to willlook away and suddenly you do this automatic lookaway thing, and some ofthat is that we're to to atten to both...

...the social gaze that someone haslooking back and forth. It's. I think it's called direct gays in theliterature, but it's just called it social gade and the Games that speakersuses in order to look at something else from the environment which gazeguidance and we're tuned to follow someone else's gaze, because theremight be something important out there that we want to attend to as well. Sothose are two examples of things that I've been studying and how theinstructor guides the attention of the student, eithertowards themselves to give them ew information or towards something elsein the environment, to support an explanation to give them newinformation to to guide them towards some visual piece of of knowledge thatis needed when you're trying to measure engagements. How do you separate one'slearning preference from their actual academic improvement, for instance? Cana students self reported scores about which modality they believe engagesthem better, actually be misleading to which truly did yeah? There is and hasbeen. I think it's settled now: There's Bin Tha Debate between style versuspreference and I think the most of Het's. A strong part of the literaturesupports the fact that you have a Colearin preference and that you might,and you might think that that is how you prefer to learn hat that doesn'tpreclude you from learning in other votalities. Much of what I look at ismultimodalities multimedia, in that it's the words that we speak of thepicture to be show the worse that we write animations and the experience ofthe instructor as the social modality to support ananchor and blue those things together. Does it answer your question? Yeah Yeah?No, it's helpful. I guess I'm Goin, I'm trying to figure out as your as uniorteam were comparing different modalities. What were the metrics thatyou were using to comeback with takeaways, in terms of which modalitiescreated that higher levels of engagement was engagement? Academicimprovement? Yes, so the framework is in an idea of an embody cognition toinclude both the idea is: There's a social ipodent that we gaged throughsurveys through a sense of feeling gauged with lesson with the materialwith the instructor and the intention or the prediction that that studentmight use those different things into the future. How well were theyconnected with it as a sense of their motivation in their ces sense of theirengagement, but we measured learning through an actual practical set ofquestions after giving them a lesson.

So the idea is well give you a a lesson.Other topic non. We study again topics and stem and then we'll afeter. Thelect sure that we deliver in different formats will test whether you are ableto both recall information that was given to you directly or be able to useinformation, to reason about something that we may not have directly Talhkinand that's the diffence between a recall and transfer transfers. The idea that we want you to use something in a productive way thatyou might not have been directly instracted on. No, that's not always easy to test, butit is always a goal for Usto to try to test it. So what we're doing is we'reusing objective questions that we ask in order to get a sense of how well thestudents did learn. Now. What it Havit said is is the component of attention.We use eye tracking, and this is the idea that we have a a computer displayin a system that once calibrated, will look andcalculate what the student is looking at on the screen. So we'll make adisplay presentation and the system that calculates to look at and to markoff this time and the location on the screen of where the student is lookingan that gives us a sense of what they're attending to much of theresearch that that, in the paper that we're talking about the Ar Journalarticle that just published was about how the instructors face and IGAYS andbody position influence where the students direct their attention. Theidea is that with instructor roperly synchronized that experience look at mewhen I want you to not be distracted by everything else in the room, Rom eor,because I'm going to give you something new and then look at this new thingthat I'm presenting to you, because I want you to look at that and to Parsonintegrate it as I describe it to you. But I don't want to look at me becauseI'm looking at me the instructors of no viue when you're supposed to be lookingat the board yeah, it's it's. So it almost becomes asituation where the instructor needs to know how to get out of the way know. How to move the student to thislocation at the right time ass, some new piece of information isbeing revealed or described and then pull them back to theinstructor in order to like prepare them for something new, so acain. Ithink it made the analogy of a dance to instructors almost like this guide inthis dance. This choreographer moving...

...the students, the students attentionthrough the process of a lesson in the right way at the right time in orderfor the students to gain the most from that experience, so in at in shortcourse, this what my study has been about, yeah and- and I know that you're-probably in a lot of our listeners- heads right now, because I know a lotof our academic listeners- are not only extraordinarily proficient instructures,but very striking beautiful charastmatic people themselves andTheire, probably boy and my distraction. Does your research suggest that therecould be such a thing as to charismatic and instructor so engaging that theyactually distract? You know this is this is an old question. It's like clarback to high schools and whether your teacher is too attractive. Aai wouldsay that again, a good teacher whether they are stunnyingly, attractive ornormal. An average person can do the same thing in that gaining attention tosupport rapport and motivation and then using that as a vehicle to directattention as necessary to move it into places in the lesson, often away fromthe instructor. I don't think the natural beauty or Carisma of aninstructor is a bad thing or is a happeling thing now. One of the thingsI did in my study was we looked at the possible distraction of theinstructor's face and the idea is that some from this study now we will talkabout the whole nature of the studies in a bit. But of this study we foundthat the instructor's face was a distraction when it was visible more.We believe that it was a distraction and then let me set up the study. So we compare a video lecture on a traditionalliteboard where the student, where t the student, the where the instructorlooks to the camera, to describe something and then turns to the boardto write or Graw. Some relevant piece of information then turn back turnsback to the camera than this was contrasted with a transparent wiy board,and that is the instructor is writing on a sheet of glass and the camerasimply reverses the image. So it looks like they know how to write backwards,which is always amazing for some people in fact, they're not writing backwards.The camera just reverses the image yeah, but the idea is that the instructorsalways visibly presented to the camera or the viewer, and in that situation wefound that students spent much more time. Looking at the instructor, thenat the lesson, okay- and I think that would happen whether there wastremendous charisma from the instructor...

...or none at all, yeah, because we arewired to attend a people's faces. We are wired to drop, be drawn to theireyes, and so it appears to be beneficial in that situation, to turnaway from the audience to look at the board, because at that point, you'reboth making you're removing the face as this element of distraction whichyou're actually shifting your body to create this embody directess like nolook over here at the board at that point, pursynchronizing them toredirect their attention and removing the distraction of the instructor'sface, and we found that in this study that students who receive the lecturewhere the student, where the instructor turned away from the student performedbetter when the face was no longer abible, and we could see this in theeye trackian as well. You can see suddenly there's all this attention onperson's face, even though the instructors not looking at the cameraor the, which is the viewer, there's still all of this attention, this beingterrected to the instructor readit into the thing that they were being, theywere looking at so yeah, so carisma isn't necessarily bad. It can be goodin motivation, but I think it still comes down to how these embodied Qes, both direct students, as well as getout of their rown way. His like step out of your wes stepnwayfrom the camera. No again going back to an earler question. You said I wouldsay that a ininstructor that, through a personaaization through directreference to the student, who acknowledge the fact that there'ssomeone on the under side of the camera, crasissense Surperpor, creates a senseof of relationship with the audience such that Youare, more encouraged to bedrawn into the Laston and then to be guided through, even though not present.So it's not it's the idea that you can be socially present and not visiblypresent to the experience and that you've been very humble about how early in the stages of learning weactually are that we're starting to get more morse studies about biconstruction and there's not a ton of firm, hard takeaways, but based on whatyou and your team have found. So far. Are there any high level best practicesthat you think instructional design teams woule at least, do well toconsider when building online classes? Yes, pacing is always important, Iwould say coreograph if you're preparing a lecture, make sure that youknow how it's sequenced, ind segment, Vatic,multimediate principles that rich mayor has been influential and developing itsfreaghtenings into pieces, consumable parts presented in the right order andchunks and then signal either with an...

...enbodied signal. As you change Gay Ansyou change of facing direction, ASD, you gesture point to help kind of movestudents through that that lesson through the deliverable. These arealways important activities and some people rush through thei lectures andwell. I do too it's just natural because you're excited- and you kind ofwant to do this, but but you want to be conscious ofallowing processing time allowing students to make connections.I mean, as an instructing you're the guide to help them make connectionsbetween contant a that. You gave them in concept to be okay, but you need togive them the time and the guidance in order to make that integration so thatthey can be effective in taking what you've, given them, what you presentedin what you've guided them to and he's super helpful. Finally, any next TEPsadvice, por institutions, listening to you excited about this they're lookingto leverage the latest research to improve their online instructionalpractice where shoul they start first were shoul, they look methods, so manypeople, I think, are wrapped up in the media. Oh there's this new thing. Thiswas bang wonderful, new thing that people are talking about the break itdown to the method. Is You can use new media but don't foregoeffective methods for constracting a lesson for connecting with yourstudents in the heart. A good teaching is about the methods at you employ inorder to support that lesson, and just adding a computer or adding a Whitbangnew type of white boarder glass board, or something like that- isn'tnecessarily effective without conscious of thoughtful methods to employ them.Based on the problems that you're trying to address in the classroom forthe students that you're working- and I thank you so much fofr your time today-I know you wanted to give some of your fellow research colleagues a shoutoutand then what's the best place for listeners, to connect with you in yourteam. If they have me, follow up questions sure to probably justwonderful colleagues that participate in this research would beLogan Fiarella at the University of Georgia and he's a young research,dynamic, wonderful, wonderful, creative researcher and enrich mayor who wasboth of ourmentors riches, also at the University of California, Santa Barbara,and I also would be remisse to not mention at this fun. This research wasfunded through the National Science Foundation and the and the SpencerFoundation. I can always be reached if you have questions- and I love I loveto hear from People Hov, you can send...

...pe an email at astall at St Ull, an UCSB Otedu, and I look forward to hearing from anybody who wants to learn a little bit more or to askquestions. And thank you. Thank you for the opportunity to talk about thisresearch awesome. Thank you so much for joining us today, Ay attracting today'snew post, traditional learners means adopting new enrolmant strategies.Keelics educations data driven enterprise, wide approach to enrolmentgrowth is uniquely helping colleges, ind universities thrive in this neweducation, landscape and Helex has just published the second edition of theirenrolment growth playbook, with fifty percent brand new content on howinstitutions can solve today's most pressing enromant growth challengesdownload it today for free at Helocs, Educationcom playbook you've been listening to enromantgrowth university from helics education to ensure that you never miss anepisode subscribe to the show in Itunes or your favorite podcast player. Thankyou so much for listening until next time.

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